What is the Working Principle of Induction Heater

If you are working in a Steel Factory then Induction Heater will be a common heating process for melting, bending of metal. Normally the processes we use for heating an object is directed to make a contact with hot objects or fire, or by the flame of fire.

Working Principle of Induction Heater:

But for Induction heating method we do not make any contact with object and fire or flame. Now just have a close look of the picture below and you will find the basic working principle of an induction heater.

Working Principle of Induction Heater
Working Principle of Induction Heater

In this photo, there is some coil which uses to make by copper and its called induction coil. If you already know how a transformer works then understanding of induction heater will be easier for you.

Because the induction heater and power transformer working principle are a little bit similar to each other. There is a primary and secondary coil in power transformer. When we apply the AC current through the primary coil then it creates a variable magnetic field. Now this magnetic field creates an effect on the secondary coil.

And this variable magnetic field from the primary coil creates a variable current on the secondary coil.

Related: Transformer Working Principle, Construction and Types

Let’s consider this copper coil is a primary coil and the object we are going to heated is a secondary side with short circuit connection. When the current goes through the secondary side then this current will be called eddy current. This secondary resistance will prevent it and for this reason, the heat will be generated and the object will be heated.

And this is the main reason for the induction heating system. But there is some limitation. Because the object we are heating will not maintain the constant heating process from its outer side and inner side. The outer side of the heating object will become more heated than the inner side.

Now the main reason behind this principle of heating is call the skin effect. For the skin effect, the amount of current generates in the secondary coil will flow through the outer side of the heating object then the inner side.

Because electrons used to move an object from its outer surface to a little bit inner surface but not in the inner center point of the object. If we go to the center of the object then current density will be decreased.

Also, due to hysteresis, the object becomes slightly heated. The changing or variation magnetic field wants to allocate the objects molecule along the direction of the field. But when the direction of the magnetic field changes then some molecules do not want to change their current orientation to a new state.

For this reason, each time some amount of the magnet energy holds in the object. To keep hold this magnetic energy for the primary is a loss and it’s called hysteresis loss. Now, this energy is converted into heat.

Now come to the most advantage of this heating method and it is the no contact with the object. For this reason, during the heating process, the object is safe from any pressure and remains intact. You will find several applications of induction heating from your home to industry.

Related: What is Inside a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

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