What is Electrical Substation and Why Substation Needed

Electrical Substation is the most common word for an Electrical Engineer or Engineering Student. I am going to post a series of article about this topic. You will find all practical problem and solution for making and maintain an electrical substation in real life. In this post you will know, what is an electrical substation, why we need substation and some basic component for a substation?

Electrical Substation
Electrical Substation

What is an Electrical Substation?

An electrical substation can be defined as “Assembly of apparatus which transfers the characteristics of electrical energy from one form to another, say for example, from alternating current to direct current or from one voltage to another voltage”.

For this reason, every electrical circuit needs a switching device and some protective device. They are all together called switchgear. These are generally you can find in the sub-station.

Related: Why We Use Stone in Outdoor Electrical Substation?

Electrical Components Inside a Substation:

  1. Incoming Circuit: These are the most common electrical component like Lightning Arrestor, Overhead Earth Wire, Isolator, Fuses, Earthing System, Switch etc but incoming lines can be underground & overhead.
  2. High Voltage Switchgear Panel: Busbar Trunking System (BBT), Isolators, Circuit Breaker, Current Transformer (C.T), Potential Transformer (P.T). Metering System, Indicating Instruments, Various Types of Protective Relays Like Earth Fault Relay.
  3. Indoor or outdoor Oil Types or Dry Types Step down or step up Transformer.
  4. Low Voltage Switchgear Panels: Busbar Trunking System (BBT), Isolator, Fuses, Some Magnetic Contactors, Air-Break Switch (ABS), Various Types of no-fuses Breaker, Metering System, Indicating Instruments, Various Types Protective Relays and PFI Capacitors.
  5. Battery Bank with Charging System.
  6. Outgoing Lines (Underground and Overhead): To another switchgear and protective devices suitable for the loads taking electricity.
  7. An Emergency Power Supply System.
  8. Others Component (Depending on the type of Electrical Substation).

Related: 33KV Outdoor Electrical Substation Equipment’s

Why Substation Needed:

Electrical substation mainly use for economical transfer electrical energy, or to meet various demand of the load, we always require a substation.

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