Generating low cost electricity is becoming more challenging in every year and in the mean time our demand is reaching sky level. But we have limited source of energy that we can converted to electricity. Till now world is using 81% of energy from the source of fossil fuel. This enormous amount of fossil fuel burning creating biggest threat for the climate and the human race. But without electricity is become impossible for us to lead our daily life.
In this article I am going to discus about the most common source of energy where we are generating electricity with present technology.
Heat (Thermal Power Plant):
Thermal Power Plant is the best example of converting energy to electricity. Thermal power plant is a kind of power plant where we convert thermal energy to electric power. Around the world we use stream turbine to rotated generator and generate electricity.
Procedure is very simple. First water is heat and generates pressurized stream then stream sent to a stream turbine which spins the generator. We use fossil fuel like Coal, Oil, GAS to run this power plant. Nuclear power plant also work with the same principle. Instead of burner a nuclear reactor uses to generate heat that produce large amount of stream. Till now it is the most popular way to generate electricity.
Heat (Geothermal Power Plant):
Geothermal power is power that generated by geothermal energy. Its little bit different than traditional thermal power plant. The source of heat energy come from deep of the earth you can say earth core. Water is use to generate stream that rotated turbine and turbine rotated generator. Water becomes stream due to earth core temperature.
Geothermal electricity generation is currently used in 24 countries while geothermal heating is in use in 70 countries in the world. Very first geothermal power generator on 4 July 1904 in Larderello, Italy. But in 1911 first commercial geothermal power was build.
Water (Hydro Power Plant):
A Hydro Power Plant generates electricity by hydro power. Installation of a hydro power plant cost is low. For this reason 150 countries in this world use this type of power plant. In 2015, 16.6% of world electricity was produce by hydro power. Chine generated 920 TWh of electricity just in 2013. Hydro power plant use water as a fuel.
Water use to drop from the height and it pass through a water turbine. Water turbine rotated by the force of water power. Turbine use to connect with generator prime mover and generator rotated due to turbine rotation. Water use to store by a dam and this type of power plant can be available highest place from sea level. Mountain River is the best place for this kind of plant. This type of power plant is CO2 free because no fossil fuel is used. But it also has some disadvantage for the nature.
Ocean Water (Tidal Power Plant):
In 1966 world’s first operational large-scale tidal power plant was the Rance Tidal Power Station in France. Earth Oceanic Tides use to generate electricity by Tidal Power Plant. A tidal generator converts the tidal flows energy into electricity. But the cost of installation for a tidal power plant is very high and availability of constant power is poor.
Because, lots of factor effect on power generation. Recent time there is some advance technology developed and this type of power project can produce more power than before. We can expect it will be our next generation reliable power source.
Wind (Wind Power Plant):
Flow of Air used to generate electricity by Wind Power Plant. When air flow through the wind turbine then it push turbine long blade that rotated the turbine and turbine rotated the generator to generate electricity. Denmark generated 40% of electricity by using wind power in the year of 2015. In 2014, 83 countries in this world used this technology to generate electricity and total global capacity was 369.55 MW electricity.
Gansu Wind Farm in China having the capacity of 7965 MW. Installing a new wind farm is bit expensive at present time. Only some of the selected place has in this world where this type of power project can be installing. Air is the fuel for wind farm and if there is no air then no electricity will be generated. This is the biggest disadvantage of the wind farm.
Sun Light (Solar Power Plant):
Now a day’s solar power is one of the favorite power sources. Solar Powered Car, Cell Phone is getting more popularity day by day. We cannot use direct sunlight to electricity. It’s need solar panel to convert sunlight to electricity. This system called Photovoltaic (PV) technology. Photovoltaic Cell (PV), is a device that converts light into electric current using the photovoltaic effect.
Very first solar cell or photovoltaic cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the year of 1880. The annual growth of this photovoltaic technology was average 40% from 2000 to 2013. Now every countries in this world having some serious issue for the increasing oil price. Everyone is looking for an alternative source of electricity where solar power came with an ultimate solution. If you want you can power you entire house by solar power generated electricity.
Lot of remote place is present where no electricity is available and people from that place is installing solar panel and they are connecting with each other’s by small solar power grid and sharing their generated electricity with each others. But installing a PV panel is relatively more expensive for a person and it also expensive for a country. This type of power plant needs more space to install and it is one of the biggest disadvantages.
In this article I tried to project the most common source of energy where we can get much power in recent time. I believe in future we can get more source of energy where we can get efficient and reliable supply of electricity. But no matter what, we have to save energy in our daily life that we waste everyday without thinking how much effort, time and money need to install those type of power plant.
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